• Improves physical condition.
• Increases endurance.
• Reduces tiredness after competition.
• Aids recovery.
• Provides non heating energy.
• Helps prevent lactic acid build-up during intense exercise.
• Decreases oxidizing stress.
Vitamin A plays an important role in the digestion and uptake of sodium, calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. It is associated with zinc in the synthesis of proteins and the protection of epithelial tissue (e.g., skin, pulmonary, vascular, and glandular epithelium) as well as with vitamin D, whose effect is reinforced.
Vitamin D stimulates the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin K. It boosts the action of vitamin A as well.
Vitamin E improves the bio-availability of vitamin C, magnesium, manganese, and inositol. It is necessary for vitamin D metabolism. It also protects against fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 against oxidation).
Vitamin B1 promotes the release of energy as it is needed to transform sugar (carbohydrate), to help the nervous system work well (disposal of wastes), and to facilitate muscle contraction. When associated with vitamin B12, it has a calming effect.
Vitamin B2 is involved in the production of energy and the metabolism of proteins and lipids. As much as vitamin A, it acts on vision and on the health of the skin and mucosae. It activates vitamins B6 and B9. It is also involved in regulating the body temperature by increasing the resistance of the organism to cold. It can also prevent conjunctivitis from occurring.
Vitamin B3 is involved in the synthesis of sex hormones; carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism; and red blood cell production.
Vitamin B5 is involved in the synthesis of hormones and neurotransmitters, nerve impulse transmission, red blood cell production, cell division, and energy production.
Vitamin B6 boosts protein metabolism and plays an essential role in the enzymatic system. It contributes to the normal development of embryos and renewal of red blood cells. It plays an important role in the synthesis of adrenaline and reduces muscle fatigue.
Vitamin B9 is involved in haematopoiesis (red blood cell production) as well as in the synthesis and actions of some amino acids. This vitamin is also involved in growth, tonus and resistance to allergies.
Vitamin B12 is involved in iron metabolism.
Iron (Fe) :
An average of 33 grams of iron is found in a 500 kilo horse: 60% is located in the haemoglobin, 20% in the myoglobin, and the rest interacts in various biological reactions (enzymes). Haemoglobin carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and brings carbon dioxide back to the lungs. Myoglobin is the main intracellular carrier of oxygen through the tissues. It also stores oxygen in the muscles.
Copper (Cu) :
Copper is an anti-anaemic factor, along with iron, cobalt, and vitamin B12. Copper is involved in the synthesis of myelin, the protective sheath of nervous tissue. It is also required for the synthesis of the pigment melanin, which is responsible for colouring dander, hair, and horn.
Zinc (Zn) :
Zinc is necessary for ossication. It protects against osteo-articular problems such as swollen hocks and fetlocks. It is very useful during growth and reproduction as well as for the immune system. Zinc contributes to the production of a high-quality hoof, in synergy with copper and vitamins A and D.
Manganese (Mn) :
Manganese is indispensable for bone development and fertility. Mn deciency is extremely rare in horses. However, intestinal absorption may be reduced by an excess of calcium, particularly in limestone-rich areas, but also if legume or beet-pulp forages are given (as is zinc uptake). In foals, Mn deciency delays ossication and thickening of articulations, splints, fetlocks and hocks.
Cobalt (Co) :
Cobalt is involved in the composition of vitamin B12. It allows its synthesis by the intestinal microora. Cobalt is anti-anaemic as it acts through vitamin B12 on red blood cells.
Selenium (Se) :
is a powerful biological anti-oxidant. Its biological action converges with that of vitamin E and must be proportional to the richness of vegetal oils in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Omega 3-6-9). Selenium, together with vitamin E, protects the cells, particularly red blood cells, against the risks of haemolysis (destruction of red blood cells by the liberation of haemoglobin into plasma). Selenium and vitamin E prevent small haemorrhages and oedema of muscles, liver, and pancreas. Selenium is involved in reducing the risks of muscle strain (blood rush – rhabdomyolysis).
Iodine is an important element in the thyroid gland, which produces two hormones directly involved in energy metabolism. Iodine is also involved in building the bone framework through thyroid hormones. Iodine requirements change in line with the secretions of the thyroid gland, but also during cold periods.
Lysine is an amino acid. Amino acids are the constituents of proteins. Lysine plays a highly important role in the horse’s muscle metabolism, as well as in its nervous and immune systems. Amino acids are the ‘building blocks’ of the proteins that form muscles, skin, hair, and ligaments. Whilst a horse needs a well-balanced diet with amino acids to assimilate proteins, lysine is often lacking.
Methionine is a sulphur-containing amino acid. Together with zinc, copper, and vitamins A and H (biotin), it is involved in the synthesis of keratin (component of hair and hoof horn). Ethionine and choline are used as dietary aids to prevent the build-up of surplus fat in the liver.
It is directly involved in the hepatic metabolism of fat acids. The action of carnitine is related to those of lysine, methionine, choline, and vitamins B3, B6 and C. It is particularly useful for sport and competition horses.
Vitamins act as catalysts in many metabolic processes, while choline is a cellular structural constituent and plays an essential role in both the elaboration and functioning of cells.
Choline is biosynthesised in the liver as long as enough methionine is present. The need for choline is clearly higher than the need for other vitamins. Choline is directly involved in the mechanisms of biotransformation of hepatic fat. It is also a constituent of acetylcholine and is therefore involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.